In this section, the process of how a user can download data from Scopus is described in detail. Scopus is the largest database of peer reviewed literature and for the moment, the only available data source of this application.
Step 1: Perform your query
Once you visit Scopus, a page that contains a search box will appear. If you want to search for a country's publications you have to type the name of the country (e.g. Austria) in the text box below the "Search" term and choose "Affiliation country" in the drop down filter menu on the right.Press the "Search" button on the bottom right of the page in order to get the corresponding results.
If you want to search for a region's publications the process is slightly different. In the "Search" area you type the name of the cities the region consists of. In order to do that you have to repeat the following process for every city accordingly. After typing the name of the first city in the Search area, you choose the Affiliation city filter from the drop down menu. Once you do so, you click on the "+" sign. A new search bar appears. Click on the AND term and choose OR instead. Type the name of the second city of the region and choose "Affiliation city" in the filter box. Repeat this process for all the cities the region consists of. Press the "Search" button on the bottom right of the page in order to get the corresponding results.
Step 2: Refine your results
After searching for a certain country, city or region you will be directed to the page that hosts the results of your query. The results page includes a large nummber of filtering options, like "Subject Area", "Affiliation", "Year", etc. You can limit your results by applying any of these filters accordingly by pressing the "Limit to" button on the left of the page. For example you can limit your results, to the publications of a certain period of time. In Figure 3 you can see all the research papers that were published in Greece, during the years 2014 - 2016.
Step 3: Download the results of your query in .csv format
In order to use the developed application, you need to download the results of your query in .csv format. Scopus provides the user with the ability to download certain metrics in regards to the query that has been issued. To do so, you have to press the " Analyze Search Results" button which redirects you to a different web page. As you can see in Figure 4, this page contains multiple tabs. The ones that you are going to use are the following: 1.Year 2.Affiliation 3. Subject area and the Export button. The Year tab will provide you with the data needed for the Annual Analysis, the Affiliation tab with the data for the Affiliation Analysis and the Subject tab with the Subject Analysis data accordingly. The .csv file will be downloaded as soon as you press the export button on the top left of your page. Each tab provides you with a different .csv data file, so it strongly advised that you save every different file with a distinct name. The whole process is also described in detail in Video 2
In this section, the process of how a user can use the Scientific Production Profile application is described in detail.
Step 1: Choose the location of your analysis
Once you visit the application, you need to choose whether you want to analyze the scientific profile of a city/country or a region. If the data that you have already downloaded concern a city/country you need to click on the first image. Otherwise, if your data are about a region you have to click on the second image.
Step 2: Choose the kind of analysis you want to perform
After choosing a city/country or a regional analysis you have to choose the kind of analysis you want to perform. The application provides three different tools. The first one, Subject Analysis, takes as input the .csv file which contains the subject area related data that you have already download from scopus. Using this data, the tool creates two different charts , a radar chart and a horizontal bar chart. Both these charts can be exported to an image and can also be included in a Word Document report that is extracted (if the user wants so). The second tool Affiliation Analysis uses the affiliation data that have been exported previously and the third tool Annual Analysis uses the year related data accordingly.
Step 3: How to use the tool for a single area
Each tool uses the same layout and functionalities. The Add Csv File(s) button is used to upload the data you have already collected. Once you click on this button a file explorer window will appear. Guide yourself to the location where your data is stored and select the appropriate csv file. After uploading your data, the layout of the page changes and several new elements appear. You can choose to visualize the Radar chart by clicking on the corresponding label, visualize the Horizontal Bar chart or add any comments in the text area,at the bottom of the page. You can export the charts by clicking on the Export Chart as PNG button and you can choose to include these charts in your report by clicking on the Add chart to Doc button. On the right side of the page you can see the green Report button which produces a word document, containing all the relevant data, your comments and the charts (depending on the user's choices). Under the report button, there is a list with all the files that you have uploaded and visualized (See Section C). Finally the red Clear button, clears the data that you have already used and allows you to insert new data.
The Video below shows in detail all the main functionalities of the Subject Analysis tool. The other two tools operate in the same way.
In this section, the process of how a user can use the Scientific Production Profile application to perform comparisons between regions or countries is described in detail. The comparison can be performed only at a subject level or a year level. The affiliation analysis tool does not have a comparison functionality, because different regions or countries have completely different affiliation organizations and such a comparison is pointless.
Step 1: Choose the kind of analysis comparison you want to perform
Once you visit the application, you need to choose whether you want to perform a subject analysis comparison or an annual analysis comparison
Step 2: Choose the regions or cities/countries you want to compare
In order to perform a comparison between x different regions or cities/countries you need to have x number of data files. The process of downloading the .csv data files has been described in details in Section A. To perform a comparison you need to follow the exact same process as described in Section B with only one difference. You have to upload more than one csv files.To do so you just need to press the Add csv File(s) and add more data. You can watch the following video to understand the whole process.
Apart from the main functionalities of the applications and its tools, there are some other hints and tips on the charts' format which will allow the user to have a clearer view.
Step 3:Show or hide certain areas of the chart
Once you visualize your data, you can choose to hide the areas that you are not interested in. To do so, you just have to click on the subject area or affiliation organization that you do not want to include in the chart (see Figure 10). For the annual analysis, if you want to hide one of the regions or cities/countries that you do not want to appear on the line chart, simply click on the according label of the chart (see Figure 11)
In this section, we present a simple comparison between two regions. This example is also available in a pdf version in the Related documents section.
Step 1: Choose the region if interest
The case study is about the region of Utrecht. We used the Eu Trade tool to check revealed competitors and regional competitiveness scoreboard in order select two regions and collect our dataset. Firstly, we selected the province of Utrecht and then selected two major cities, Amersfoort and Zeist. Next step was to find the top 10 competitors from the competitiveness scoreboard, which is based on the degree that firms are active in the same geographical markets (revealed competition). From this scoreboard we selected the region of Dusseldorf which was the strongest competitor of the list.
Step 2: Download the data
The data source for this application is Scopus. Following the steps presented in Section A we downloaded the publication related data for the two regions we have already mentioned. You can download the data here.
Step 3:Subject Analysis
In order to perform a subject comparative analysis, we have to upload the two subject related CSVs we have already downloaded in the "Subject Analysis" application. You can find the relevant report in the pdf version of the case study.
From the first table of the report, we identify certain fields with high publication activity and we proceed to comparative conclusions. For instance, number of publications in the field of Medicine is of highest value at both regions, region of Utrecht with 50326 publications and region of Dusseldorf with 17619 publications. Biochemistry Genetics and Molecular Biology are also two field with high value. This analysis helps us to compare all aspects of performance for these regions and to identify common patterns of academic systems. In addition to this, benchmarking is a valuable tool because we can identify weaknesses and strengths, and link them to overall regional performance. For instance, this table highlights that the field of Dentistry contains the lowest number of publications for both regions, so we can assume it's a weakness. Finally, we present two charts, a Radar chart and a Horizontal bar chart. Radar chart is a graphical method of displaying multivariate data in the form of a two-dimensional chart of three or more quantitative variables represented on axes starting from the same point. In our case, it visualizes the intensity of each scientific field, regarding the number of publications, excluding the two fields with highest value (Medicine and Biochemistry Genetics and Molecular Biology), in order to have better visualization and help users come to useful comparative conclusions. Horizontal bar chart, offers a different way of comparison, presents our categorical data with horizontal rectangular bars, with lengths proportional to the values that they represent, each region has its distinct color and users can come again to useful conclusions, for instance identify scientific fields with highest and lowest number of publications between the two regions.
Step 4:Affiliation Analysis
Affiliation analysis is used to identify the institutions that publish more scientific research in a region.In order to perform an affiliation analysis, we have to upload the related CSV, which we have already downloaded, in the "Affiliation Analysis" application. This part of the application is not used as a benchmarking tool.
From the first table of the extracted report, we notice two columns, the left one contains names of Institutions, Research centers or Universities and the right one has their values in descending order, presenting the total number of publications in the region of Utrecht. For instance, Utrecht University, University Medical Center of Utrecht and Erasmus University Medical Center, are the top three institutions with the most publications, in the same way we can identify that The Netherlands Cancer Institute and Hubrecht Laboratory KNAW Netherlands Institute for Developmental Biology are in the last position. This analysis helps us compare the scientific performance of institutions at the region of Utrecht. Finally, we present two charts, a Radar chart and a Horizontal bar chart. Radar chart is a graphical method of displaying multivariate data in the form of a two-dimensional chart of three or more quantitative variables represented on axes starting from the same point. In our case, it visualizes the intensity of the top 20 scientific institutions, regarding the number of publications, excluding all other institutions with lower values (such as Debye Institute, SRON Netherlands Institute for Space Research etc.), to have sharper visualization and help users come to useful conclusions. Horizontal bar chart, offers a different way of comparison, presents our categorical data with horizontal rectangular bars, with lengths proportional to the values that they represent. Users can come to conclusions in an easier way and identify at once, institutions with the highest and lowest number of publications in the region of Utrecht.
Step 5:Annual Analysis
Annual analysis is used to identify the evolution of scientific activity of each region over time. We can select a certain time window, while we download the appropriate data. In order to perform an annual analysis, we have to upload the related CSV, which we have already downloaded, in the "Annual Analysis" application.
From the first table, we notice three columns, the first one contains the timeframe between 2000 and 2018, the second and third presents the total number of publications per year, for Utrecht’s and Dusseldorf’s region accordingly. For instance, the year with highest value at Utrecht, was 2016 with 7950 publications, but for the region of Dusseldorf, value 2750 is the highest number of publications at year 2015. In the same way we can easily identify that the year 2018 is in the last position because the database at Scopus hasn’t been updated yet. This analysis helps us to understand the increased rate of growth in scientific publications every year.Moreover, tbenchmarking is a valuable tool because we can identify weaknesses and strengths, and link them to yearly regional performance. Finally, we present a line chart (time series chart), which displays information and shows a trend in our dataset, over intervals of time. It contains two axes, the horizontal axis presents the timeframe, and the vertical axis presents the number of publications. The chart visualizes the increased rate of growth in publications regarding time evolution, with two colorful lines that are drawn chronologically.